Building Automation System (BAS):Features and Applications

Building Automation System (BAS):

Building Automation System (BAS)
Building Automation System (BAS)

Building Automation System (BAS) helps in the monitoring and control of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems of a building. It also helps in the management of common facilities of a building like lighting, safety, and security.

The earlier building automation systems used wired technology for performing automation tasks. Today with the improvement in technology modern buildings utilize Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNS) to perform the entire automation task required in Building Automation Systems (BAS)

ZigBee standards are used for building automation system.

The building automation system can be used in schools, homes, offices, factories so as to upgrade the building facilities and reduce maintenance and operational costs.

The main requirement in applying the WSN technology to BAS is that the system should have a very high lifetime i.e. once a building automation system is deployed it is supposed to work for several months or even years autonomously.

A typical sensor node consists of components like one or more sensing units for measurement, a microprocessor or a microcontroller a small amount of memory for computing and data storage, and a short-range radio (RFID) for wireless communication. Each of these components consumes energy when a sensor node works. 

The important factors to be considered while automation network application are:

  1. Energy efficiency
  2. Reliability
  3. Latency
  4. Scalability
  5. Mobility
  6. Safety and privacy

Some of the features that the building automation system include:

  1. It reduces energy expenses through optimized HVAC management.
  2. It automates control of various systems to improve conservation, flexibility, and security. 
  3. Integration and centralized management of lighting, heating, cooling, and security and safety systems. 
  4. It helps to deploy wireless monitoring networks for enhancing perimeter protection.
  5. It enables one to distribute utility costs equitably depending on the actual consumption. 
  6. It enables the extension and up-gradation of building infrastructure with minimum effort.
  7. It enables the fast reconfiguration of lighting systems with a view to creating adaptable workspaces.
  8. It helps to network and integrate the data from multiple access control points.


Applications:

Building automation system can be used for:

  1. Controlling the temperature and climate of a building.
  2. Detecting fire in a building.
  3. Detecting the structural faults.
  4. Video surveillance.
  5. Indoor lighting control.

It is suggested to use the WSN to monitor and control the systems that are designed to produce a temperature gradient inside the premises and are now part of various commercial premises. These systems are often known as Under Flow Air Distribution (UFAD) Systems. They are mostly controlled with a single temperature sensor.

A WSN used for energy monitoring and control of a building can improve living conditions for the residents and provide improved air quality, thermal comfort, health, safety, and productivity. It also reduces the energy bill.

WSN lighting systems used in buildings use sensor nodes with relays for switching the lights on / off.

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