Types of Connectors:

The two major types of connectors are

  1. Ferrule type connectors
  2. Lensed type connectors


1. Ferrule type connectors:


The schematic is as shown in the below image.



Here the uncoated fibers are placed in the ferrule.

They are fixed by using an adhesive material.

Then the two ferrules are brought in contact under the cylindrical sleeve as shown in image.


2. Lensed type connectors :


The schematic is as shown in the below image.

This uses the two lenses namely collimator lens and refocusing lens.



By adjusting the two lenses the optic signal from one optical fiber is connected to the other optical fiber. 

Here the radial alignment of two parts to be connected is not critical as compared to other connectors.

But an angular alignment is difficult in this case.

Some other types of connectors are as follows: 

Subminiature type-A (SMA) connector:

  • This type of connector has a screw-on connector mechanism.
  • It is preferred in data communication and instrumentation connections.
  • It is a very common type of connector, but it has limited uses in new systems due to its difficulty in pairing.

FC (Fiber Connector) Connectors:

  • It is basically push on-off type metallic connector having a provision of locking tab.
  • It contains ceramic ferrule.
  • Such connectors are specially used for single-mode fibers.
  • These connectors provide extremely precise positions for the connection of source and detector.

Subscriber Channel (SC) connector:

  • These are general-purpose connectors and provides accurate alignment through their ceramic ferrules.
  • These connectors have a push-pull type locking system.
  • Insertion loss of such connectors is about 0.25 dB.
  • They are suitable for single-mode or multimode fibers and it is widely used for LAN.

Straight Tip (ST) connector:

  • These connectors are push-in, twisted-type metallic connectors. 
  • They are constructed having a single metal housing and can be easily connected and removed from the fiber optic cable. 
  • They are mostly used in networking devices as well as in data communication.

Little Connector or Local Connector (LC):

  • It contains plastic housing and a ceramic ferrule. 
  • These connectors provide precise alignment for single-mode and multimode fibers.
  • They are basically used for high-density, inter connections. 
  • These connectors are also used for connecting different instruments to optical cables.

Jack or Media Termination - Recommended Jack (MT - RJ) connectors:

  • These are push-on, pull-off types suitable for duplex multimode connections. 
  • These connectors are having plastic housing, metal guide pins, and plastic ferrules
  • They can connect almost 72 fibers, so these connectors are suitable for high-density local area networks. 

The different connectors are shown in the below image.

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