Showing posts from January, 2022

Transmission Technology

Transmission Technology: The performance of wireless communication systems has some limitations bec…

Different Types of Architectures in WSN

Different Types of Architectures in WSN: There are 3 types of architecture used in WSN :  Distrib…

Building Automation System (BAS):Features and Applications

Building Automation System (BAS): Building Automation System (BAS) Building Automation System (BAS)…

WiMAX-MAC Layer

WiMAX-MAC Layer: WiMAX-MAC Layer The MAC layer is responsible to provide a medium-independent int…

WiMAX-Physical (PHY) Layer

WiMAX - Physical (PHY) Layer: In order to support duplexing, WiMAX adapted a burst design that all…

WiMAX Technology: Principles and Layers

WiMAX Technology: Principles and Layers WiMAX technology based on the IEEE 802.16 specifications t…

Backhaul Definition and Meaning

Backhaul Definition and Meaning: A WiMAX tower station can connect directly to the Internet using …

Define RFID Antenna

Define RFID Antenna: RFID Antenna The antenna uses radiofrequency waves for transmitting a signal…

RFID Reader and its Types

RFID Reader and its Types: RFID Reader A reader is a transmitter/receiver that can read or write th…

What is Radio Communication?

What is Radio Communication? Radio Communication In a ZigBee network, radio transmission/reception…

Applications of Bluetooth

Applications of Bluetooth: The applications of Bluetooth include: (1) Smart homes and Home systems…

Advantages of Bluetooth

Advantages of Bluetooth: i)Wireless internet connectivity:  A number of devices support Bluetooth.…

About PICONET

About PICONET: Bluetooth PICONET The Bluetooth-enabled devices can locate each other, but user acti…

What is Scatternet?

What is Scatternet? Eight devices can be connected in a Bluetooth network called PICONET. One of t…

What is Evolution Data Optimized (EVDO)?

What is Evolution Data Optimized (EVDO)? Evolution Data Optimized (EVDO) is a high rate packet da…

Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA)

Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA): Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (A…

Mobile Station (MS)

Mobile Station (MS): The Mobile Station (MS) communicates with the Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs…

CDMA 2000

CDMA 2000: CDMA 2000 is a high data rate upgrade path for current users of 2G and 2.5G CDMA standa…

RAKE Receiver

RAKE Receiver: In CDMA system, the multipath interference is reduced by combining direct and refle…

CDMA

CDMA (IS-95): A US digital cellular system based on CDMA that has increased system capacity was s…

Link Budget

Link Budget: A link budget is used for determining the cell coverage by computing the factors that…

MIMO, Multiple Input Multiple Output

MIMO, Multiple Input Multiple Output:  MIMO, Multiple Input Multiple Output MIMO, Multiple input m…

High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)

High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA):  High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) It is a 3GPP …

HSPA (High Speed Packet Access)

HSPA (High Speed Packet Access): HSPA (High Speed Packet Access) It is an enhancement of the UMTS c…

Node B

Node B: Node B takes care of Radio-resource management functions Air-interface processing Node B …

UMTS Architecture

UMTS Architecture: UMTS Architecture The above image shows the UMTS network architecture. As shown…

Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS)

Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS): Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS…

Demodulation

Demodulation: The part of the transmitted forward channel signal that is important to the user is d…

Modulation

Modulation: The GSM uses 0.3 GMSK modulation . 0.3 describes the 3 dB bandwidth of the Gaussian p…

Ciphering

Ciphering: It changes the contents of eight interleaved blocks by using the encryption methods tha…

Interleaving

Interleaving: Interleaving To minimize the effect of sudden fades on the data that is received, th…

Channel Coding

Channel Coding: The speech coder output bits are grouped for error protection, according to their …

Handover

Handover: Handoff or Handover is the process of transferring a mobile station from one channel or…

Calling

Calling: Upon powering up the mobile terminal, try to initially register the mobile with the desir…

Localization

Localization: Localization  is a process by which a mobile station is identified, authenticated an…

Protocols

Protocols: The signaling protocol in GSM is structured into three general layers depending on the…

Traffic Channel (TCH)

Traffic Channel (TCH): Traffic channels carry digitally encoded user data or user speech on the fo…

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