Four Stroke Engine Definition

 A cross-section of a four-stroke cycle engine. The engine is made up of a piston which moves up and down in a cylinder which is covered at the top by a cylinder head. The fuel injector, through which fuel enters the cylinder, is located in the cylinder head. The inlet and exhaust valves are also housed in the cylinder head and held shut by springs.

 The piston is joined to the connecting rod by a gudgeon pin. The bottom end or big end of the connecting rod is joined to the crankpin which forms part of the crankshaft. With this assembly, the linear up-and-down movement of the piston is converted into rotary movement of the crankshaft.

 The crankshaft is arranged to drive through gears the camshaft, which either directly or through pushrods operates rocker arms which open the inlet and exhaust valves. The camshaft is 'timed' to open the valves at the correct point in the cycle. The crankshaft is surrounded by the crankcase and the engine framework which supports the cylinders and houses the crankshaft bearings. The cylinder and cylinder head are arranged with water-cooling passages around them.

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